DNA Identity

 1. DNA Profiling
 2. Marker Sets / Quality control
 3. Reproducibility
 4. Certificates

 1. DNA Profiling

Genetic Identity

DNA profiling is the lab work necessary to establish a DNA profile. The basis material for DNA profiling is the genetic substance (DNA) extracted from submitted samples.
To determine the genetic individuality of an animal and to execute the parentage analyses we use a variety of STR (Short Tandem Repeat) class as well as SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorhisms) class marker sets.

Qualified DNA Profiles

Each DNA profile established by Generatio undergoes a number of tests that certify the uniqueness and applicability of the parentage evaluations in each profile. Additionally, further tests of these DNA data also help reveal certain population parameters.
Depending on breed and species, identity profiling can be broadened to include specific genetic characteristics (DNA profile 'Predisposition'). Further information will be given at section 'Genes - Predispositions'.

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 2. Markersets / Quality control

To determine the identity and parentage in dogs we prefer to utilize STR marker sets custom-designed by Generatio: these sets have proven their superior abilities in servicing our clients' breeds in many years of usage, and guarantee reliable certification of pedigree in each individual animal. Other marker panels such as ISAG2006 or NIST typically provide less information and are thus often not satisfactorily efficient in reliably evaluating parentage data in pure breeds.

For the typification of alpacas/llamas, livestock, horses, and cats, we use as basis DNA identification markers designed and published by ISAG, combined with additional markers depending on the individual animal and identification requirement, all of which delivers sufficient certainty the animal's parentage evaluation and determination.

ISAG Comparison Test 2012: Dog - Certificate of participation | Llama & alpaca - Certificate of participation

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 3. Reproducibility

Our analysis approach guarantees continued comparability of DNA profiles from the start of each DNA program. This ensures that each animal in a particular breed population must undergo the typification process to determine identity and parentage only once.

There is common agreement that establishment processes in STR marker profiles may be adjusted to the extent that comparisons between DNA profiles generated by different laboratories can be made which greatly benefits identity control. This is possible because differently generated DNA profiles of individual animals must be 100% identical: even a small number of informative markers delivers sufficient certainty about the authenticity of an animal's identity and parentage as long as the various DNA profiles used are 100% identical. Reversely, all of our animal identity certificates can easily be examined by any other experienced DNA laboratory.

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 4. Certificates

Any identity profile established by Generatio unmistakably and unforgeably documents the individuality of a single animal from which the DNA sample used in this profile was extracted and analyzed. To reliably document ownership history of each animal, its DNA profile is linked with a current and certified record of ownership. For delivery of proof, an ownership certificate combined with its DNA profile can be generated upon request. (Example)

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